Tuesday, December 30, 2014

UGC NET Computer Science Solved Paper -II Dec 2014

Questions along with Answers Below - Explanations are always welcome

1. Consider a set A = {1, 2, 3, …….., 1000}. How many members of A shall be divisible by  3 or by 5 or by both 3 and 5 ?
(A) 533    (B) 599
(C) 467    (D) 66

2. A certain tree has two vertices of degree 4, one vertex of degree 3 and one vertex of degree 2. If the other vertices have degree 1, how many vertices are there in the graph ?
(A) 5             (B) n – 3
(C) 20          (D) 11

3. Consider the Graph shown below :

 This graph is a __________.
(A) Complete Graph          (B) Bipartite Graph
(C) Hamiltonian Graph       (D) All of the above

4. A computer program selects an integer in the set {k : 1 k 10,00,000} at random and prints out the result. This process is repeated 1 million times. What is the probability that the value k = 1 appears in the printout atleast once ?
(A) 0.5               (B) 0.704
(C) 0.632121    (D) 0.68

5. If we define the functions f, g and h that map R into R by :
 f(x) =x 4 , g(x) = x 2 + 1 ,  h(x) =x 2 + 72, then the value of the composite functions ho(gof) and (hog)of are given as
(A) x 8 – 71 and x 8 – 71            (B) x 8 – 73 and x 8 – 73
(C) x 8 + 71 and x 8 + 71           (D) x 8 + 73 and x 8+ 73

6. The BCD adder to add two decimal digits needs minimum of
(A) 6 full adders and 2 half adders
(B) 5 full adders and 3 half adders
(C) 4 full adders and 3 half adders
(D) 5 full adders and 2 half adders

7. The Excess-3 decimal code is a self-complementing code because
(A) The binary sum of a code and its 9’s complement is equal to 9.
(B) It is a weighted code.
(C) Complement can be generated by inverting each bit pattern.
(D) The binary sum of a code and its 10’s complement is equal to 9.

8. How many PUSH and POP operations will be needed to evaluate the following expression by reverse polish notation in a stack machine (A * B) + (C * D/E) ?
(A) 4 PUSH and 3 POP instructions           (B) 5 PUSH and 4 POP instructions
(C) 6 PUSH and 2 POP instructions           (D) 5 PUSH and 3 POP instructions

9. The range of representable normalized numbers in the floating point binary fractional representation in a 32-bit word with 1-bit sign, 8-bit excess 128 biased exponent and 23-bit mantissa is
(A) 2 -128 to (1 – 2 -23) × 2 127             (B) (1 – 2 -23) × 2 127 to 2 128
(C) (1 – 2 -23) × 2 -127 to 2 23               (D) 2 -129 to (1 – 2 -23) × 2 127

10. The size of the ROM required to build an 8-bit adder/ subtractor with mode control, carry input, carry output and two’s complement overflow output is given as
(A) 216 × 8            (B) 218 × 10
(C) 216 × 10          (D) 218 × 8

11. What will be the output of the following ‘C’ code ?
main ( )
{ int x = 128;
printf (“\n%d”, 1 + x ++);
(A) 128         (B) 129
(C) 130         (D) 131

12. What does the following expression means ?
char *(*(* a[N]) ( )) ( );
(A) a pointer to a function returning array of n pointers to function returning character pointers.
(B) a function return array of N pointers to functions returning pointers to characters
(C) an array of n pointers to function returning pointers to characters
(D) an array of n pointers to function returning pointers to functions returning pointers to characters.

13. Which of the following is not a member of class ?
(A) Static function                (B) Friend function
(C) Const function               (D) Virtual function

14. When an array is passed as parameter to a function, which of the following statements is correct ?
(A) The function can change values in the original array.
(B) In C, parameters are passed by value, the function cannot change the original value in the array.
(C) It results in compilation error when the function tries to access the elements in the array.
(D) Results in a run time error when the function tries to access the elements in the array

15. Which of the following differentiates between overloaded functions and overridden functions ?
(A) Overloading is a dynamic or runtime binding and overridden is a static or compile time binding.
(B) Overloading is a static or compile time binding and overriding is dynamic or runtime binding.
(C) Redefining a function in a friend class is called overloading, while redefining a function in a derived class is called as overridden function.
(D) Redefining a function in a derived class is called function overloading, while redefining a function in a friend class is called function overriding.

16. Division operation is ideally suited to handle queries of the type :
(A) customers who have no account in any of the branches in Delhi.
(B) customers who have an account at all branches in Delhi.
(C) customers who have an account in atleast one branch in Delhi.
(D) customers who have only joint account in any one branch in Delhi

17. Which of the following is true ?
I. Implementation of self-join is possible in SQL with table alias.
II. Outer-join operation is basic operation in relational algebra.
III. Natural join and outer join operations are equivalent.
(A) I and II are correct.           (B) II and III are correct.
(C) Only III is correct.             (D) Only I is correct.

18. What kind of mechanism is to be taken into account for converting a weak entity set into strong entity set in entity-relationship diagram ?
(A) Generalization         (B) Aggregation
(C) Specialization         (D) Adding suitable attributes

19. The best normal form of relation scheme R(A, B, C, D) along with the set of functional dependencies 
F = {AB   C, AB D, C A, D B} is
(A) Boyce-Codd Normal form    (B) Third Normal form
(C) Second Normal form            (D) First Normal form

20. Identify the minimal key for relational scheme R(A, B, C, D, E) with functional dependencies 
F = {A B, B C, AC D}
(A) A            (B) AE
(C) BE          (D) CE

21. Convert the following infix expression into its equivalent post fix expression
(A + B^ D) / (E – F) + G
(A) ABD^ + EF – / G+                        (B) ABD + ^EF – / G+
(C) ABD + ^EF / – G+                        (D) ABD^ + EF / – G+

22. You have to sort a list L, consisting of a sorted list followed by a few ‘random’ elements. Which of the following sorting method would be most suitable for such a task ?
(A) Bubble sort            (B) Selection sort
(C) Quick sort            (D) Insertion sort

23. The directory can be viewed as ________ that translates filenames into their directory entries.
(A) Symbol table               (B) Partition
(C) Swap space                (D) Cache

24. Consider an array A[20, 10], assume 4 words per memory cell and the base address of array A is 100. What is the address of A[11, 5] ? Assume row major storage.
(A) 560              (B) 565
(C) 570              (D) 575

25. A full binary tree with n leaves contains
(A) n nodes                   (B) log2 n nodes
(C) 2n –1 nodes           (D) 2 nodes

26. The period of a signal is 10 ms. What is its frequency in Hertz ?
(A) 10                (B) 100
(C) 1000            (D) 10000

27. In a classful addressing, first four bits in Class A IP address is
(A) 1010             (B) 1100
(C) 1011             (D) 1110

28. Which of the following algorithms is not a broadcast routing algorithm ?
(A) Flooding                                     (B) Multidestination routing
(C) Reverse path forwarding             (D) All of the above

29. An analog signal has a bit rate of 6000 bps and a baud rate of 2000 baud. How many data elements are carried by each signal element ?
(A) 0.336 bits/baud                    (B) 3 bits/baud
(C) 120,00,000 bits/baud           (D) None of the above

30. How many distinct stages are there in DES algorithm, which is parameterized by a 56-bit key ?
(A) 16           (B) 17
(C) 18          (D) 19

31. Shift-Reduce parsers perform the following :
(A) Shift step that advances in the input stream by K(K > 1) symbols and Reduce step that applies a completed grammar rule to some recent parse trees, joining them together as one tree with a new root symbol.
(B) Shift step that advances in the input stream by one symbol and Reduce step that applies a completed grammar rule to some recent parse trees, joining them together as one tree with a new root symbol.
(C) Shift step that advances in the input stream by K(K = 2) symbols and Reduce step that applies a completed grammar rule to form a single tree.
(D) Shift step that does not advance in the input stream and Reduce step that applies a completed grammar rule to form a single tree.

32. Which of the following is true ?
(A) Canonical LR parser is LR (1) parser with single look ahead terminal
(B) All LR(K) parsers with K > 1 can be transformed into LR(1) parsers.
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) None of the above

33. In a two-pass assembler, symbol table is
(A) Generated in first pass
(B) Generated in second pass
(C) Not generated at all
(D) Generated and used only in second pass

34. Debugger is a program that
(A) allows to examine and modify the contents of registers
(B) does not allow execution of a segment of program 
(C) allows to set breakpoints, execute a segment of program and display contents of register
(D) All of the above

35. The following Context-Free Grammar (CFG) :
S → aB | bA
A → a | as | bAA
B → b | bs | aBB
will generate
(A) odd numbers of a’s and odd numbers of b’s
(B) even numbers of a’s and even numbers of b’s
(C) equal numbers of a’s and b’s
(D) different numbers of a’s and b’s

36. Consider the following justifications for commonly using the two-level CPU scheduling :
I. It is used when memory is too small to hold all the ready processes.
II. Because its performance is same as that of the FIFO.
III. Because it facilitates putting some set of processes into memory and a choice is made from that.
IV. Because it does not allow to adjust the set of in-core processes.
Which of the following is true ?
(A) I, III and IV        (B) I and II
(C) III and IV           (D) I and III

37. A specific editor has 200 K of program text, 15 K of initial stack, 50 K of initialized data, and 70 K of bootstrap code. If five editors are started simultaneously, how much physical memory is needed if shared text is used ?
(A) 1135 K            (B) 335 K
(C) 1065 K            (D) 320 K

38. Which of the following conditions does not hold good for a solution to a critical section problem ?
(A) No assumptions may be made about speeds or the number of CPUs.
(B) No two processes may be simultaneously inside their critical sections.
(C) Processes running outside its critical section may block other processes.
(D) Processes do not wait forever to enter its critical section.

39. For the implementation of a paging scheme, suppose the average process size be x bytes, the page size be y bytes, and each page entry requires z bytes. The optimum page size that minimizes the total overhead due to the page table and the internal fragmentation loss is given by
(A)  x /2                    (B) xz / 2
(C) 2xy                 (D) xz   / 2

40. In a demand paging memory system, page table is held in registers. The time taken to service a page fault is 8 m.sec. if an empty frame is available or if the replaced page is not modified, and it takes 20 m.secs., if the replaced page is modified. What is the average access time to service a page fault assuming that the page to be replaced is modified 70% of the time ?
(A) 11.6 m.sec.          (B) 16.4 m.sec.
(C) 28 m.sec.             (D) 14 m.sec.

41. __________ are applied throughout the software process.
(A) Framework activities           (B) Umbrella activities
(C) Planning activities                (D) Construction activities

42. Requirement Development, Organizational Process Focus, Organizational Training, Risk Management and Integrated Supplier Management are process areas required to achieve maturity level
(A) Performed
(B) Managed
(C) Defined
(D) Optimized

43. The software _________ of a program or a computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them.
(A) Design
(B) Architecture
(C) Process
(D) Requirement

44. Which one of the following set of attributes should not be encompassed by effective software metrics ?
(A) Simple and computable
(B) Consistent and objective
(C) Consistent in the use of units and dimensions
(D) Programming language dependent

45. Which one of the following is used to compute cyclomatic complexity ?
(A) The number of regions – 1
(B) E – N + 1, where E is the number of flow graph edges and N is the number of flow graph nodes.
(C) P – 1, where P is the number of predicate nodes in the flow graph G.
(D) P + 1, where P is the number of predicate nodes in the flow graph G.

46. Consider the following statements S1 and S2 :
S1 : A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell.
S2 : A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged.
(A) S1 is true and S2 is not true.    (B) S1 is not true and S2 is true.
(C) Both S1 and S2 are true.         (D) Both S1 and S2 are not true.

47. Fact-less fact table in a data warehouse contains
(A) only measures                   (B) only dimensions
(C) keys and measures            (D) only surrogate keys

48. Which e-business model allows consumers to name their own price for products and services ?
(A) B2 B                 (B) B2 G
(C) C2 C                 (D) C2 B

49. __________ model is designed to bring prices down by increasing the number of customers who buy a particular product at once.
(A) Economic Order Quantity     (B) Inventory
(C) Data Mining                         (D) Demand-Sensitive Pricing

50. Match the following :
List – I                                                                           List – II
a. Call control protocol               i. Interface between Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and Base Station 
                                                     Controller (BSC)
b. A-bis                                      ii. Spread spectrum
c. BSMAP                                 iii. Connection management
d. CDMA                                  iv. Works between Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and Base Station        
                                                       Subsystem (BSS)
Codes :
      a   b   c  d
(A) iii   iv  i   ii
(B) iii   i   iv  ii
(C) i   ii   iii   iv
(D) iv  iii  ii   i

UGC NET Computer Science Solved Paper -III Dec 2014

Questions along with Answers Below - Explanations are always welcome

1. A hierarchical memory system that uses cache memory has cache access time of 50 nano seconds, main memory access time of 300 nano seconds, 75% of memory requests are for read, hit ratio of 0.8 for read access and the write-through scheme is used. What will be the average access time of the system both for read and write requests ?
(A) 157.5 n.sec.         (B) 110 n.sec.
(C) 75 n.sec.              (D) 82.5 n.sec.

2. For switching from a CPU user mode to the supervisor mode following type of interrupt is most appropriate
(A) Internal interrupts          (B) External interrupts
(C) Software interrupts        (D) None of the above

3. In a dot matrix printer the time to print a character is 6 m.sec., time to space in between characters is 2 m.sec., and the number of characters in a line are 200. The printing speed of the dot matrix printer in characters per second and the time to print a character line are given by which of the following options ?
(A) 125 chars/second and 0.8 seconds
(B) 250 chars/second and 0.6 seconds
(C) 166 chars/second and 0.8 seconds
(D) 250 chars/second and 0.4 seconds
NOTE: All the above options are wrong.  The correct answer should be 125 chars/second and 1.6 seconds
(Question paper setters are always lethargic, this is not the first time, every time they repeat. incapable follows. only the aspirants are put into trouble)

4. Match the following 8085 instructions with the flags :
       List – I                   List – II
a. XCHG                     i. only carry flag is affected.
b. SUB                        ii. no flags are affected.
c. STC                        iii. all flags other than carry flag are affected.
d. DCR                       iv. all flags are affected.
Codes :
       a  b c  d
(A) iv  i   iii  ii
(B) iii   ii  i  iv
(C) ii   iii  i  iv
(D) ii   iv  i  iii

5. How many times will the following loop be executed ?
           LXI B, 0007 H
          MOV A, B
          ORA C
          JNZ LOP
(A) 05          (B) 07
(C) 09          (D) 00

6. Specify the contents of the accumulator and the status of the S, Z and CY flags when 8085 microprocessor performs addition of 87 H and 79 H.
(A) 11, 1, 1, 1             (B) 10, 0, 1, 0
(C) 01, 1, 0, 0             (D) 00, 0, 1, 1

7. Location transparency allows :
I. Users to treat the data as if it is done at one location.
II. Programmers to treat the data as if it is at one location.
III. Managers to treat the data as if it is at one location.
Which one of the following is correct ?
(A) I, II and III              (B) I and II only
(C) II and III only          (D) II only

8. Which of the following is correct ?
I. Two phase locking is an optimistic protocol.
II. Two phase locking is pessimistic protocol
III. Time stamping is an optimistic protocol.
IV. Time stamping is pessimistic protocol.
(A) I and III            (B) II and IV
(C) I and IV            (D) II and III

9. __________ rules used to limit the volume of log information that has to be handled and processed in the event of system failure involving the loss of volatile information.
(A) Write-ahead log           (B) Check-pointing
(C) Log buffer                    (D) Thomas

10. Let R = ABCDE is a relational scheme with functional dependency set F = {A → B, B → C, AC → D}. The attribute closures of A and E are
(A) ABCD, φ           (B) ABCD, E
(C) Φ, φ                  (D) ABC, E

11. Consider the following statements :
I. Re-construction operation used in mixed fragmentation satisfies commutative rule.
II. Re-construction operation used in vertical fragmentation satisfies commutative rule
Which of the following is correct ?
(A) I                                (B) II
(C) Both are correct        (D) None of the statements are correct.

12. Which of the following is false ?
(A) Every binary relation is never be in BCNF.
(B) Every BCNF relation is in 3NF.
(C) 1 NF, 2 NF, 3 NF and BCNF are based on functional dependencies.
(D) Multivalued Dependency (MVD) is a special case of Join Dependency (JD).

13. Which of the following categories of languages do not refer to animation languages ?
(A) Graphical languages         (B) General-purpose languages
(C) Linear-list notations          (D) None of the above

14. Match the following :
     List – I                                      List – II
a. Tablet, Joystick                     i. Continuous devices
b. Light Pen, Touch Screen       ii. Direct devices
c. Locator, Keyboard               iii. Logical devices
d. Data Globe, Sonic Pen         iv. 3D interaction devices
Codes :
      a  b  c  d
(A) ii   i  iv  iii
(B) i   iv  iii  ii
(C) i   ii   iii  iv
(D) iv  iii  ii   i

15. A technique used to approximate halftones without reducing spatial resolution is known as _________.
(A) Halftoning          (B) Dithering
(C) Error diffusion    (D) None of the above

16. Consider a triangle represented by A(0, 0), B(1, 1), C(5, 2). The triangle is rotated by 45 degrees about a point P(–1, –1). The co-ordinates of the new triangle obtained after rotation shall be _______
(A) A' ( –1, 2 –1),  B'( –1, 2√2 –1), C' (3/2 2 –1, 9/2 2 –1)
(B) A' ( 2 –1,-1),  B'( 2√2 –1, –1) , C' (3/2 2 –1, 9/2 2 –1)
(C) A' ( –1, 2 –1),  B'( 2√2 –1,–1), C' (3/2 2 –1, 9/2 2 –1)
(D) A' ( –1, 2 –1),  B'( 2√2 –1,–1), C' (9/2 2 –1, 3/2 2 –1)

17. In Cyrus-Beck algorithm for line clipping the value of t parameter is computed by the relation :
(Here P1 and P2 are the two end points of the line, f is a point on the boundary, n1 is inner normal)
(A) (P1 – fi) .ni /  (P2 – P1) . ni             (B) (fi – P1) . ni / (P2 – P1) . ni
(C) (P2 – fi) . ni / (P1 – P2) . ni             (D) (fi – P2) . ni / (P1 – P2) . ni

18. Match the following :
a. Cavalier Projection                 i. The direction of projection is chosen so that there is no foreshortening of
                                                     lines perpendicular to the xy plane.
b. Cabinet Projection                 ii. The direction of projection is chosen so that lines perpendicular to the xy
                                                     planes are foreshortened by half their lengths.
c. Isometric Projection               iii. The direction of projection makes equal angles with all of the principal
d. Orthographic Projection         iv. Projections are characterized by the fact that the direction of projection 
                                                      is perpendicular to the view plane.
Codes :
      a  b   c  d
(A) i  iii   iv   ii
(B) ii  iii   i   iv
(C) iv  ii  iii   i
(D) i   ii  iii   iv

19. Consider the following statements S1, S2 and S3 :
S1 : In call-by-value, anything that is passed into a function call is unchanged in the caller’s scope when the function returns.
S2 : In call-by-reference, a function receives implicit reference to a variable used as argument.
S3 : In call-by-reference, caller is unable to see the modified variable used as argument.
(A) S3 and S2 are true. (B) S3 and S1 are true.
(C) S2 and S1 are true. (D) S1, S2, S3 are true.

20. How many tokens will be generated by the scanner for the following statement ?
x = x * (a + b) – 5;
(A) 12     (B) 11
(C) 10     (D) 07

21. Which of the following statements is not true ?
(A) MPI_Isend and MPI_Irecv are non-blocking message passing routines of MPI.
(B) MPI_Issend and MPI_Ibsend are non-blocking message passing routines of MPI.
(C) MPI_Send and MPI_Recv are non-blocking message passing routines of MPI.
(D) MPI_Ssend and MPI_Bsend are blocking message passing routines of MPI.

22. The pushdown automation M = ({q0, q1, q2}, {a, b}, {0, 1}, δ, q0, 0, {q0}) with
δ(q0, a, 0) = {(q1, 10)}
δ(q1, a, 1) = {(q1, 11)}
δ(q1, b, 1) = {(q2, λ)}
δ(q2, b, 1) = {(q2, λ)}
δ(q2, λ, 0) = {(q0, λ)}
Accepts the language
(A) L = {a n b m) | n, m ≥ 0}     (B) L = {a n bn) | n ≥ 0}
(C) L = {a n b m) | n, m > 0}     (D) L = {a n bn) | n > 0}

23. Given two languages :
L1 = {(ab) n a k  | n > k, k ≥  0}
L2 = {a n b m) | n ≠ m}
Using pumping lemma for regular language, it can be shown that
(A) L1 is regular and L2 is not regular.
(B) L1 is not regular and L2 is regular.
(C) L1 is regular and L2 is regular.
(D) L1 is not regular and L2 is not regular.

24. Regular expression for the complement of language L = {a n b m  | n  4, m 3} is
(A) (a + b)* ba(a + b)*
(B) a* bbbbb*
(C) (λ + a + aa + aaa)b* + (a + b)* ba(a + b)*
(D) None of the above

25. For n devices in a network, ________ number of duplex-mode links are required for a mesh topology.
(A) n(n + 1)              (B) n (n – 1)
(C) n(n + 1)/2           (D) n(n – 1)/2

26. How many characters per second (7 bits + 1 parity) can be transmitted over a 3200 bps line if the transfer is asynchronous ? (Assuming 1 start bit and 1 stop bit)
(A) 300         (B) 320
(C) 360         (D) 400

27. Which of the following is not a field in TCP header ?
(A) Sequence number    (B) Fragment offset
(C) Checksum               (D) Window size

28. What is the propagation time if the distance between the two points is 48,000 ? Assume the propagation speed to be 2.4 × 108 metre/second in cable.
(A) 0.5 ms        (B) 20 ms
(C) 50 ms         (D) 200 ms

29. __________ is a bit-oriented protocol for communication over point-to-point and multipoint links.
(A) Stop-and-wait         (B) HDLC
(C) Sliding window        (D) Go-back-N

30. Which one of the following is true for asymmetric-key cryptography ?
(A) Private key is kept by the receiver and public key is announced to the public.
(B) Public key is kept by the receiver and private key is announced to the public.
(C) Both private key and public key are kept by the receiver.
(D) Both private key and public key are announced to the public.

31. Any decision tree that sorts n elements has height
(A) Ω(n)                 (B)  Ω(lgn)
(C)  Ω(nlgn)            (D)  Ω(n2)

32. Match the following :
            List – I                               List – II
a. Bucket sort                             i. O(n3lgn)
b. Matrix chain multiplication       ii. O(n3)
c. Huffman codes                       iii. O(nlgn)
d. All pairs shortest paths           iv. O(n)
Codes :
      a  b c  d
(A) iv  ii  i  iii
(B) ii  iv  i  iii
(C) iv  ii  iii  i
(D) iii  ii  iv  i

33. We can show that the clique problem is NP-hard by proving that
(D) None of the above

34. Dijkstra algorithm, which solves the single-source shortest--paths problem, is a _________, and the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, which finds shortest paths between all pairs of vertices, is a _________
(A) Greedy algorithm, Divide-conquer algorithm
(B) Divide-conquer algorithm, Greedy algorithm
(C) Greedy algorithm, Dynamic programming algorithm
(D) Dynamic programming algorithm, Greedy algorithm

35. Consider the problem of a chain <A1, A2, A3> of three matrices. Suppose that the dimensions of the matrices are 10 × 100, 100 × 5 and 5 × 50 respectively. There are two different ways of parenthesization : (i) ((A1 A2)A3) and (ii) (A1(A2 A3)). Computing the product according to the first parenthesization is ________ times faster in comparison to the second parenthesization.
(A) 5          (B) 10
(C) 20        (D) 100

36. Suppose that we have numbers between 1 and 1000 in a binary search tree and we want to search for the number 365. Which of the following sequences could not be the sequence of nodes examined ?
(A) 4, 254, 403, 400, 332, 346, 399, 365
(B) 926, 222, 913, 246, 900, 260, 364, 365
(C) 927, 204,913, 242, 914, 247, 365
(D) 4, 401, 389, 221, 268, 384, 383, 280, 365

37. Which methods are utilized to control the access to an object in multi-threaded programming ?
(A) Asynchronized methods        (B) Synchronized methods
(C) Serialized methods                (D) None of the above

38. How to express that some person keeps animals as pets ?

39. Converting a primitive type data into its corresponding wrapper class object instance is called
(A) Boxing             (B) Wrapping
(C) Instantiation     (D) Autoboxing

40. The behaviour of the document elements in XML can be defined by
(A) Using document object
(B) Registering appropriate event handlers
(C) Using element object
(D) All of the above

41. What is true about UML stereotypes ?
(A) Stereotype is used for extending the UML language.
(B) Stereotyped class must be abstract
(C) The stereotype indicates that the UML element cannot be changed
(D) UML profiles can be stereotyped for backward compatibility

42. Which method is called first by an applet program ?
(A) start( )        (B) run( )
(C) init( )          (D) begin( )

43. Which one of the following is not a source code metric ?
(A) Halstead metric (B) Function point metric
(C) Complexity metric (D) Length metric

44. To compute function points (FP), the following relationship is used FP = Count – total × (0.65 + 0.01 × Σ(Fi)) where Fi (i = 1 to n) are value adjustment factors (VAF) based on n questions. The value of n is
(A) 12    (B) 14
(C) 16    (D) 18

45. Assume that the software team defines a project risk with 80% probability of occurrence of risk in the following manner : Only 70 percent of the software components scheduled for reuse will be integrated into the application and the remaining functionality will have to be custom developed. If 60 reusable components were planned with average component size as 100 LOC and software engineering cost for each LOC as $ 14, then the risk exposure would be
(A) $ 25,200       (B) $ 20,160
(C) $ 17,640       (D) $ 15,120

46. Maximum possible value of reliability is
(A) 100          (B) 10
(C) 1              (D) 0

47. ‘FAN IN’ of a component A is defined as
(A) Count of the number of components that can call, or pass control, to a component A
(B) Number of components related to component A
(C) Number of components dependent on component A
(D) None of the above

48. Temporal cohesion means
(A) Coincidental cohesion
(B) Cohesion between temporary variables
(C) Cohesion between local variables
(D) Cohesion with respect to time

49. Various storage devices used by an operating system can be arranged as follows in increasing order of accessing speed :
(A) Magnetic tapes → magnetic disks → optical disks → electronic disks → main memory → cache → registers
(B) Magnetic tapes → magnetic disks → electronic disks → optical disks → main memory → cache → registers
(C) Magnetic tapes → electronic disks → magnetic disks → optical disks → main memory → cache → registers
(D) Magnetic tapes → optical disks → magnetic disks → electronic disks → main memory → cache → registers

50. How many disk blocks are required to keep list of free disk blocks in a 16 GB hard disk with 1 kB block size using linked list of free disk blocks ? Assume that the disk block number is stored in 32 bits.
(A) 1024 blocks           (B) 16794 blocks
(C) 20000 blocks         (D) 1048576 blocks

51. Consider an imaginary disk with 40 cylinders. A request come to read a block on cylinder 11. While the seek to cylinder 11 is in progress, new requests come in for cylinders 1, 36, 16, 34, 9 and 12 in that order. The number of arm motions using shortest seek first algorithm is
(A) 111     (B) 112
(C) 60      (D) 61

52. An operating system has 13 tape drives. There are three processes P1, P2 & P3. Maximum requirement of P1 is 11 tape drives, P2 is 5 tape drives and P3 is 8 tape drives. Currently, P1 is allocated 6 tape drives, P2 is allocated 3 tape drives and P3 is allocated 2 tape drives. Which of the following sequences represent a safe state ?
(A) P2 P1 P3         (B) P2 P3 P1
(C) P1 P2 P3         (D) P1 P3 P2

53. Monitor is an Interprocess Communication (IPC) technique which can be described as
(A) It is higher level synchronization primitive and is a collection of procedures, variables, and data structures grouped together in a special package.
(B) It is a non-negative integer which apart from initialization can be acted upon by wait and signal operations.
(C) It uses two primitives, send and receive which are system calls rather than language constructs.
(D) It consists of the IPC primitives implemented as system calls to block the process when they are not allowed to enter critical region to save CPU time.

54. In a distributed computing environment, distributed shared memory is used which is
(A) Logical combination of virtual memories on the nodes.
(B) Logical combination of physical memories on the nodes.
(C) Logical combination of the secondary memories on all the nodes.
(D) All of the above

55. Equivalent logical expression for the Well Formed Formula (WFF),
~(∀x) F[x] is
(A) x(~F[x])            (B) ~(x) F[x]
(C) ∃x(~F[x])             (D) F[x]

56. An A* algorithm is a heuristic search technique which
(A) is like a depth-first search where most promising child is selected for expansion
(B) generates all successor nodes and computes an estimate of distance (cost) from start node to a goal node through each of the successors. It then chooses the successor with shortest cost.
(C) saves all path lengths (costs) from start node to all generated nodes and chooses shortest path for further expansion.
(D) none of the above

57. The resolvent of the set of clauses  (A ∨ B, ~A ∨ D, C ∨ ~B)  is
(A) A ∨ B            (B) C ∨ D
(C) A ∨ C            (D) A ∨ D

58. Match the following :
a. Script                                    i. Directed graph with labelled nodes for graphical representation of
b. Conceptual Dependencies     ii. Knowledge about objects and events is stored in record-like structures 
                                                    consisting of slots and slot values.
c. Frames                                 iii. Primitive concepts and rules to represent natural language statements
d. Associative Network            iv. Frame like structures used to represent stereotypical patterns for
                                                    commonly occurring events in terms of actors, roles, props and scenes
Codes :
      a b   c  d
(A) iv  ii  i   iii
(B) iv  iii  ii   i
(C) ii  iii  iv   i
(D) i  iii  iv   ii

59. Match the following components of an expert system :
a. I/O interface              i. Accepts user’s queries and responds to question through I/O interface
b. Explanation module   ii. Contains facts and rules about the domain
c. Inference engine       iii. Gives the user, the ability to follow inferencing steps at any time during consultation
d. Knowledge base      iv. Permits the user to communicate with the system in a natural way
Codes :
      a  b  c   d
(A) i  iii   iv  ii
(B) iv  iii  i   ii
(C) i   iii  ii   iv
(D) iv  i   iii  ii

60. A computer based information system is needed :
I. as it is difficult for administrative staff to process data.
II. due to rapid growth of information and communication technology.
III. due to growing size of organizations which need to process large volume of data.
IV. as timely and accurate decisions are to be taken.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are true ?
(A) I and II
(B) III and IV
(C) II and III
(D) II and IV

61. Given the recursively enumerable language (LRE), the context sensitive language (LCS), the recursive language (LREC), the context free language (LCF) and deterministic context free language (LDCF). The relationship between these families is given by

62. Match the following :
              List – I                            List – II
a. Context free grammar          i. Linear bounded automaton
b. Regular grammar                 ii. Pushdown automaton
c. Context sensitive grammar   iii. Turing machine
d. Unrestricted grammar          iv. Deterministic finite automaton
Codes :
       a  b  c  d
(A) ii  iv  iii   i
(B) ii  iv   i   iii
(C) iv  i   ii   iii
(D) i   iv  iii   ii

63. According to pumping lemma for context free languages :
Let L be an infinite context free language, then there exists some positive integer m such that any w ∈| L with | w | m can be decomposed as w = u v x y z
(A) with | vxy | ≤ m such that uv i xy i z ∈ L for all i = 0, 1, 2
(B) with | vxy | ≤ m, and | vy | 1, such that uv i xy i z ∈ L for all i = 0, 1, 2, …….
(C) with | vxy | m, and | vy | ≤ 1, such that uv i xy i z ∈ L for all i = 0, 1, 2, …….
(D) with | vxy | m, and | vy | 1, such that uv i xy i z ∈ L for all i = 0, 1, 2, …….

64. Given two spatial masks
The Laplacian of an image at all points (x, y) can be implemented by convolving the image with spatial mask. Which of the following can be used as the spatial mask ?
(A) only S1                    (B) only S2
(C) Both S1 and S2       (D) None of these

65. Given a simple image of size 10 × 10 whose histogram models the symbol probabilities
and is given by
           p1    p2    p3    p4
            a      b      c      d
The first order estimate of image entropy is maximum when
(A) a = 0, b = 0, c = 0, d = 1         (B) a =1/2, b =1/2 , c = 0, d = 0
(C) a =1/3, b =1/3, c =1/3, d = 0   (D) a =1/4, b =1/4, c =1/4, d =1/4

66. A Butterworth lowpass filter of order n, with a cutoff frequency at distance D0 from the origin, has the transfer function H(u, v) given by

67. If an artificial variable is present in the ‘basic variable’ column of optimal simplex table, then the solution is
(A) Optimum           (B) Infeasible
(C) Unbounded       (D) Degenerate

68. The occurrence of degeneracy while solving a transportation problem means that
(A) total supply equals total demand
(B) total supply does not equal total demand
(C) the solution so obtained is not feasible
(D) none of these

69. Five men are available to do five different jobs. From past records, the time (in hours) that
each man takes to do each job is known and is given in the following table :
Find out the minimum time required to complete all the jobs.
(A) 5        (B) 11
(C) 13      (D) 15

70. Consider the following statements about a perception :
I. Feature detector can be any function of the input parameters.
II. Learning procedure only adjusts the connection weights to the output layer.
Identify the correct statement out of the following :
(A) I is false and II is false.        (B) I is true and II is false.
(C) I is false and II is true.         (D) I is true and II is true.

71. A _________ point of a fuzzy set A is a point x ∈ X at which μA(x) = 0.5
(A) core               (B) support
(C) crossover       (D) α-cut

72. Match the following learning modes w.r.t. characteristics of available information for learning :
a. Supervised            i.  Instructive information on desired responses, explicitly specified by a teacher.
b. Recording             ii. A priori design information for memory storing
c. Reinforcement      iii. Partial information about desired responses, or only “right” or “wrong” evaluative 
d. Unsupervised        iv. No information about desired responses
Codes :
     a  b  c  d
(A) i  ii  iii  iv
(B) i  iii  ii  iv
(C) ii  iv  iii  i
(D) ii  iii  iv  i

73. Which of the following versions of Windows O.S. contain built-in partition manager which allows us to shrink and expand pre-defined drives ?
(A) Windows Vista               (B) Windows 2000
(C) Windows NT                 (D) Windows 98

74. A Trojan horse is
(A) A program that performs a legitimate function that is known to an operating system or its user and also has a hidden component that can be used for nefarious purposes like attacks on message security or impersonation.
(B) A piece of code that can attach itself to other programs in the system and spread to other systems when programs are copied or transferred.
(C) A program that spreads to other computer systems by exploiting security holes like weaknesses in facilities for creation of remote processes
(D) All of the above

75. Which of the following computing models is not an example of distributed computing environment ?
(A) Cloud computing           (B) Parallel computing
(C) Cluster computing         (D) Peer-to-peer computing

UGC NET Solved Paper -I Dec 2014

Questions along with Answers Below - Explanations are always welcome

1.    CSS stands for
(A)    Cascading Style Sheets
(B)    Collecting Style Sheets
(C)    Comparative Style Sheets
(D)    Comprehensive Style Sheets

2.    MOOC stands for
(A)    Media Online Open Course
(B)    Massachusetts Open Online Course
(C)    Massive Open Online Course
(D)    Myrind Open Online Course

3.   Binary equivalent of decimal number 35 is
(A) 100011    (B) 110001
(C) 110101    (D) 101011

4.    gif. jpg, bmp, png are used as extensions for files which store
 (A)    audio data    (B)    image data    (C)    video data    (D)    text data

5.    Symbols A-F are used in which one of the following ?
(A)    Binary number system
(B)    Decimal number system
(C)    Hexadecimal number system
(D)    Octal number system

6.    Which one of the following is not a search engine ?
(A)   Google    (B)    Chrome
(C)    Yahoo    (D)    Bing

7.    In terms of total CO, emissions from a country, identify the correct sequence
(A)    U.S.A. > China > India > Russia
(B)    China > U.S.A. > India > Russia
(C)    China > U.S.A. > Russia > India
(D)    U.S.A. > China > Russia > India

8.    Match List - I and List - II and identify the correct code :
               List - I                            List-II
a.     World Health Day         i.    16th September
b.    World Population Day    ii.   1st   December
c.     World Ozone Day         iii.  1st  July
d.     World AIDS Day          iv.  7th April
          a    b       c       d       
(A)    i    ii       iii       iv       
(B)    iv    iii        i        ii       
(C)    ii    iii       iv        i       
(D)   iii    iv       ii        i

9.    Which  of the  anthropogenic  activity  accounts  for  more than  ~2/3rd  of global  water consumption ?
(A)    Agriculture
(B)    Hydropower generation
(C)    Industry
(D)    Domestic and Municipal usage

10.    One of the anthropogenic sources of gaseous pollutants chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in air is
(A)    Cement industry
(B)    Fertiliser industry
(C)    Foam industry
(D)    Pesticide industry 

11.    The maximum number of fake institutions / universities as identified by the UGC in the year 2014 are in the State / Union territory of
(A)    Bihar              (B)    Uttar Pradesh
(C)    Tamil Nadu    (D)    Delhi

12.    Which of the following institutions are empowered to confer or grant degrees under the UGC Act, 1956 ?
1.    A university established by an Act of Parliament.
2.    A university established by an Act of Legislature.
3.    A university / institution established by a linguistic minority.
4.    An institution which is a deemed to be university.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A)    1 and 2    (B)    1,2 and 3
(C)    1.2 and 4    (D)    1, 2, 3 and 4

13.    Which of the following are the tools of good governance ?
1.    Social Audit
2.    Separation of Powers
3.    Citizen's Charter
4.    Right to Information
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A)    1,3 and 4    (B)    2. 3 and 4
(C)    l and 4        (D)    1,2. 3 and 4

14.    The cyclone 'Hudhud' hit the coast of which State ?
(A)    Andhra Pradesh    (B)    Kamataka
(C)    Kerala                  (D)    Gujarat

15.    Which of the following is not a renewable natural resource ?
(A)    Clean air       (B)    Fresh water
(C)    Fertile soil     (D)    Salt

16.    Right to Privacy as a Fundamental Right is implied in
(A)    Right to Freedom
(B)    Right to Life and Personal Liberty
(C)    Right to Equality
(D)    Right against Exploitation

17.    Which  of the  following organizations  deals  with capacity building  Educational Planning ?
(A)    NCERT
(B)    UGC
(C)    NAAC
(D)    NUEPA

18.    Which of the following powers, the President has in relation to Lok Sabha ?
1.    Summoning
2.    Adjournment - sine die
3.    Prorogation
4.    Dissolution
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A)    1 and 4
(B)    1.2 and 3
(C)    1, 3 and 4
(D)    1,2, 3 and 4

19.    The interval between two sessions of parliament must not exceed
(A)    3 months
(B)    6 months 

(C)    4 months
(D)    100 days

20.    Maximum participation of students during teaching is possible through 
(A)    Lecture method    (B)    Demonstration method  (C)    Inductive method    (D)    Textbook method

21.    Diagnostic evaluation ascertains
(A)    Students performance at the beginning of instructions.
(B)    Learning progress and failures during instructions.
(C)    Degree of achievement of instructions at the end.
(D)    Causes and remedies of persistent learning problems during instructions.

22.    Instructional aids are used by the teacher to
(A)    glorify the class    (B)    attract the students
(C)    clarify the concepts    (D)    ensure discipline

23.    Attitude of the teacher that affects teaching pertains to
(A)    Affective domain    (B)    Cognitive domain
(C)    Connative domain    (D)    Psychomotor domain

24.    "Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man" was stated by
(A)    M.K.Gandhi              (B)    R.N. Tagore
(C)    Swami Vivekanand    (D)    Sri Aurobindo

25.    Which of the following is not a prescribed level of teaching ?
(A)    Memory    (B)    Understanding
(C)    Reflective    (D)   Differentiation

26.    The core elements of a dissertation are
(A)    Introduction; Data Collection; Data Analysis; Conclusions and Recommendations
(B)    Executive Summary; Literature review; Data gathered; Conclusions: Bibliography
(C)    Research Plan; Research Data; Analysis: References
(D)    Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology, Results; Discussion and Conclusion

27.    What is a Research Design ?
(A)    A way of conducting research that is not grounded in theory.
(B)    The choice between using qualitative or quantitative methods.
(C)    The style in which you present your research findings e.g. a graph.
(D)    A framework for every stage of the collection and analysis of data.

28.    'Sampling Cases' means
(A)    Sampling using a sampling frame
(B)    Identifying people who are suitable for research
(C)    Literally the researcher's briefcase
(D)    Sampling of people, newspapers, television programmes etc.

29.    The frequency distribution of a research data which is symmetrical in shape similar to a normal distribution but center peak is much higher, is
(A)    Skewed         (B)   Mesokurtic
(C)    Leptokurtic    (D)   Platykurtic 

30.    When planning to do as social research, it is better to
(A)    approach the topic with an open mind
(B)    do a pilot study before getting stuck into it
(C)    be familiar with literature on the topic
(D)    forget about theory because this is a very practical

31.    When academicians are called to deliver lecture or presentation to an audience on certain topics or a set of topics of educational nature, it is called
(A)   Training Program    (B)    Seminar
(C)    Workshop            (D)    Symposium

32.    Media is known as 
(A)    First Estate       (C)    Third Estate
(B)    Second Estate  (D)    Fourth Estate

33.    The mode of communication that involves a single source transmitting information to a large number of receivers simultaneously, is called
(A)    Group Communication
(B)    Mass Communication
(C)    Intrapersonal Communication
(D)    Interpersonal Communication

34.    A smart classroom is a teaching space which has
(i)     Smart portion with a touch panel control system. 

(ii)    PC/Laptop connection and DVD/VCR player. 
(iii)   Document camera and specialized software 
(iv)    Projector and screen Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A)    (i) and (ii) only
(B)    (ii) and (iv) only
(C)    (i). (ii) and (iii) only
(D)    (i).(ii),(iii)and(iv)

35.    The term 'Yellow Journalism' refers to
(A)    sensational news about terrorism and violence
(B)    sensationalism and exaggeration to attract readers / viewers.
(C)    sensational news about arts and culture
(D)    sensational news prints in yellow paper.

36.    In the classroom, the teacher sends the message either as words or images. The students are really
(A)    Encoders    (B)    Decoders
(C)    Agitators    (D)    Propagators

37.    The next term in the series :
        AB, ED, IH, NM,  is       
    (A)    TS    (B)    ST
    (C)    TU    (D)   SU

38.    If STREAMERS is coded as UVTGALDQR, then KNOWLEDGE will be coded as 


39.    A is brother of B. B is the brother of C. C is the husband of D. E is the father of A. D is related to E as
(A)    Daughter          (B)    Daughter-in-law
(C)    Sister-in-law    (D)    Sister

40.    Two numbers are in the ratio 3 : 5. If 9 is subtracted from the numbers, the ratio become 12 : 23. The numbers are
(A)    30,50    (B)    36,60
(C)    33,55    (D)    42,70

41.    The mean of the ages of father and his son is 27 years. After 18 years, father will be twice as old as his son. Their present ages are
(A)    42.12    (B)    40,14
(C)    30,24    (D)    36.18

42.    Digital Empowerment means
(i)     Universal digit literacy
(ii)    Universal access to all digital resources.
(iii)   Collaborative digital platform for participative governance.
(iv)   Probability of all entitlements for individuals through cloud.

    Choose the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A)   (i) and (ii) only           (B)    (ii) and (iii) only
(C)   (i), (ii) and (iii) only    (D)    (i), (ii). (iii) and (iv)

43.    The next term in the series :
2,7,28.63, 126.    is
(A)    215    (B)    245
(C)    276    (D)    296

Read the following passage carefully and answer questions 44 to 48 : 
The literary distaste for politics, however, seems to be focused not so much on the largely murky practice of politics in itself as a subject of literary representation but rather more on how it is often depicted in literature, i.e., on the very politics of such representation. A political novel often turns out to be not merely a novel about politics but a novel with a politics of its own, for it seeks not merely to show us how things are but has fairly definite ideas about how things should be, and precisely what one should think and do in order to make things move in that desired direction. In short, it seeks to convert and enlist the reader to a particular cause or ideology; it often is (in an only too familiar phrase) not literature but propaganda. This is said violate the very spirit of literature which is to broaden our understanding of the world and to range of our sympathies rather than to narrow them down through partisan commitment. As John Keats said, 'We hate poetry that has a palpable design upon us'.
Another reason why politics does not seem amenable to the highest kind of literary representation seems to arise from the fact that politics by its very nature is constituted of ideas and ideologies. If political situations do not lend themselves to happy literary treatment, political ideas present perhaps an even greater problem in this regard. Literature, it is argued, is about human experiences rather than about intellectual abstractions; it deals in what is called the 'felt reality' of human flesh and blood, and in sap and savour (rasa) rather than in arid and lifeless ideas. In an extensive discussion of the matter in her book Ideas and the Novel the American novelist Mary McCarthy observed that 'ideas are still today felt to be unsightly in the novel though that was not so in 'former days', i.e.. in the 18th and 19n centuries. Her formulation of the precise nature of the incompatibility between ideas on the one hand and the novel on t other betrays perhaps a divided conscience in the matter and a sense of dilemma shared by many writers and readers : 'An idea cannot have loose ends, but a novel, I almost think, needs them Nevertheless, there is enough in common for the novelists to fee!... the attraction of ideas while taking up arms against them - most often with weapons of mockery.'

44.    The constructs of politics by its nature is
(A)    Prevalent political situation    (B)    Ideas and Ideologies
(C)   Political propaganda    (D)   Understanding of Iranian nature

45.    Literature deals with
(A)    Human experiences in politics        (B)    Intellectual abstractions
(C)    Dry and empty ideas    (D)    Felt reality of human life

46.    The observation of the novelist. Mary McCarthy reveals
(A)    unseen felt ideas of today in the novel
(B)    dichotomy of conscience on political ideas and novels
(C)    compatibility between idea and novel
(D)    endless ideas and novels

47.    According to the passage, a political novel often turns out to be a
(A)    Literary distaste for politics    (B)    Literary representation of politics
(C)    Novel with its own politics    (D)    Depiction of murky practice of politics

48.    A political novel reveals
(A)    Reality of the things                        (B)    Writer's perception
(C)    Particular ideology of the readers   (D)    The spirit of literature

49.    Warrior is related to sword, carpenter is related to saw. farmer is related to plough. In the same way, the author is related to 

(A)    Book    (B)    Fame (C)    Reader    (D)    Pen

50.    Given below is a diagram of three circles A, B and C over-lapping each other. The circle A represents the class of honest people, the circle B represents the class of sincere people and circle C represents the class of politicians, p, q. r, s. U. X. Y represent different regions. Select the code that represents the region indicating the class of honest politicians who are not sincere.
Codes :
(A)    X    (B)    q
(C)    p    (D)    s

51.    "A man ought no more to value himself for being wiser than a woman if he owes his advantage to a better education, than he ought to boast of his courage for beating a man when his hands were tied."
The above passage is an instance of
(A)    Deductive argument    (B)    Hypothetical argument
(C)    Analogical argument    (D)    Factual argument

52.    By which of the following proposition, the proposition wise men are hardly afraid death is contradicted ?
(A)    Some wise men are afraid of death.
(B)    All wise men are afraid of death.
(C)    No wise men is afraid of death.
(D)    Some wise men are not afraid of death.

53.    When in a group of propositions, one proposition is claimed to follow from the others, the group of propositions is called
(A)    An argument      (B)    A valid argument
(C)    An explanation    (D)    An invalid argument

54.    Namita and Samita are brilliant and studious. Anita and Karabi are obedient and irregular Babita and Namita are irregular but brilliant. Samita and Kabita are regular and obedient. Who among them is/are brilliant, obedient, regular and studious ?
(A) Samita alone    (B) Namita and Samita
(C) Kabita alone    (D) Anita alone

For a country CO, emissions (million metric tons) from various sectors are given in the following table. Answer the questions (55 to 60) based on the data given :
 55.    By what percentage (%), the total emissions of CO, have increased from 2005 to 2009 ?
(A)    -89.32%    (B)    -57.62%
(C)    -40.32%    (D)    -113.12%

56.    What is the average annual growth rate of CO, emissions in power sector ?
(A)    -12.57%    (B)    -16.87%
(C)    -30.81%    (D)    -50.25%

57.    What is the percentage contribution of power sector to total CO, emissions in the year 2008 ?
(A)    -30.82%    (B)    -41.18%
(C)    -51.38%    (D)    -60.25%

58.    In which year,    the contribution (%) of industry to total  sectoral CO, emissions was minimum ?
(A)    2005    (B) 2006
(C)    2007    (D) 2009

59.    What is the percentage (%) growth    of CO, emissions from power sector during 2005 to 2009?
(A)    60    (B)    50
(C)    40    (D)    80

60.    Which sector has recorded maximum growth in CO, emissions during 2005 to 2009 ?
(A)    Power    (B)    Industry
(C)    Commercial    (D)    Agriculture